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WHAT IS A CYSTOTOMY IN DOGS?

 

Nephrology & Urology - Surgery (General & Soft Tissue)

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

A cystotomy is a surgical opening created in the wall of the urinary bladder. This procedure allows the surgeon to look inside the bladder. While abdominal x-rays, ultrasound examination, and cystoscopy (scooping the bladder) are less invasive methods of looking into the bladder, cystoscopy has an important role in treatment of urinary bladder problems.

WHAT ARE THE INDICATIONS FOR PERFORMING A CYSTOTOMY?

Cystotomy is most indicated for treatment of bladder problems including removal of bladder stones, bladder tumors, and blood clots. This procedure also can be done to obtain a biopsy sample of the urinary bladder. Cystotomy is done to repair a rupture or severe trauma to the urinary bladder. In cases of abnormal insertion of the ureters into the bladder (these are the thin long tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), a cystotomy incision will be needed to correct the problem.

WHAT PREOPERATIVE EXAMINATIONS OR TESTS ARE NEEDED BEFORE A CYSTOTOMY?

Preoperative tests depend in part on the age and general health of the animal as well as the cause for the cystotomy. Radiographs (x-rays) or abdominal ultrasound typically is done to diagnose the underlying illness prior to surgery. Often a complete blood count, serum biochemical test, a urinalysis, and possibly an EKG will be performed prior to surgery.

WHAT TYPE OF ANESTHESIA IS NEEDED FOR A CYSTOTOMY?

This is a surgical procedure that involves opening the abdominal cavity. General anesthesia is needed to induce unconsciousness, complete control of pain, and muscle relaxation. In the usual case, the pet will receive a pre-anesthetic sedative-analgesic drug to help him relax, a brief intravenous anesthetic to allow placement of a breathing tube in the windpipe, and subsequently inhalation (gas) anesthesia in oxygen during the actual surgery.

How Is the Cystotomy Operation Done?

Following anesthesia, the pet is placed on its back lying on the surgical table. The hair is clipped over the lower abdomen, the skin is scrubbed with surgical soap to disinfect the area and a sterile drape is placed over the surgical site. The incision is similar to a spay incision (midline). Your veterinarian uses a scalpel to incise the skin of the lower abdomen and to open the abdominal cavity. The urinary bladder is isolated with sterile sponges and an incision is made. Any urine is removed from the bladder to prevent abdominal contamination. The operation then continues; for example, the surgeon may remove bladder stones, a tumor, or extensive blood clots. Often a urinary catheter is placed at the conclusion of surgery, to allow urine to drain easily from the bladder. At the conclusion of the procedure, sutures (stitches) that dissolve over time are placed to close the incision in the urinary bladder. The abdominal incision is then closed with one or two layers of self-dissolving sutures (stitches). The outer layer of skin is closed with sutures or surgical staples; these need to be removed in about 10 to 14 days.

HOW LONG DOES THE CYSTOTOMY TAKE TO PERFORM?

The procedure takes about 45 minutes to 1-1/4 hours to perform in most cases, including the needed time for preparation and anesthesia.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS OF A CYSTOTOMY OPERATION?

The overall risk of this surgery is low. The major risks are those of general anesthesia, bleeding (hemorrhage), postoperative infection, urine leakage, and wound breakdown (dehiscence) over the incision. Overall complication rate is low, but serious complications can result in death or the need for additional surgery.

WHAT IS THE TYPICAL POSTOPERATIVE AFTERCARE FOR A CYSTOTOMY?

Post-operative medication should be given to relieve pain, which is judged in most cases to be mild to moderate and can be effectively eliminated with safe and effective pain medicines. Often a urinary catheter will have been placed at surgery. This is typically removed in 24 to 72 hours. The home care requires reduced activity until the stitches are removed in 10 to 14 days. You should inspect the suture line daily for signs of redness, discharge, swelling, or pain and monitor your pet’s urinary habits. Some blood-tinged urine is expected for the first few days, but obvious pain, straining or a lack of urination is not normal and should prompt a call to your veterinarian.

HOW LONG IS THE HOSPITAL STAY FOLLOWING A CYSTOTOMY?

The typical stay following a cystotomy is 2-3 days but will vary depending on the overall health of the pet and the underlying reason for the surgery.

Comments

Nice one.I recommend,additionally ,that a continuous everting horizontal mattress suture pattern be used on the detrusor bladder muscles to withstand strain.
Posted @ Friday, November 23, 2012 8:52 AM by Chima Maduka Victor
My 14 year old female had several hundred bladder stones removed.Sizes were small medium and large.Vet says this never has happened to have that many stones.They sent most to get tested and the rest to me.This girl didn't show any pain but panted alot and had to relieve herself more,thinking that it was due to her age.Waiting for results to come back.Expensive surgery but she is coming along pretty well.Just pray there is no cancer or anything bad.We can put her on a special diet not to get stones again.I don't understand how and when they got there,hundreds of stones is totally not heard of.
Posted @ Friday, December 07, 2012 10:18 PM by sandra patterson
My 5-year-old Shih Tzu has just been diagnosed with bladder stones. I noticed that she was urinating frequently and then her urine became dark and then I saw blood. She never appeared sick otherwise. I took her to the vet and they gave her amoxicllin to clear up the urinary tract infection after which she will have a cystotomy to remove the stones. My question is, do these stones ever resolve on their own preventing surgery? As soon as her UTI clears up she will have surgery. Her urine color has returned to normal.
Posted @ Sunday, May 26, 2013 6:42 PM by Dorothy Sinkler
My sweet boy, Shadow, just had his 2nd bladder stone removal surgery!! Last time he had one completely block his urethra, which was cut to get out while the others were "flushed back" surgically. With such serious surgery he stayed @ vets for a week. This time, I had him ex-rayed when I suspected a problem and he had about 15 tiny ones removed surgically but came home in a day. I had other plans and shortly after he came home: gave him his antibiotics, put his "cone" on his head, & left him in a crate after also giving pain meds. I was gone all evening, when I got home he seems fine but when I look at his incision area, his skin looks a scary reddish purple. Looks like I should be worried AND tomorrow is Sunday so my vets office is closed? I wish I knew if this was something to do something about???
Posted @ Sunday, July 14, 2013 12:47 AM by Sheri
my dog has the same problem. he has some infection and a hematoma. i am taking him back to the vet for an antibiotic injection; he is not eating. he is so listless, and this is so unlike our lively dog. this year he also had two acl repairs. godd luck to you!!! how did it all go? i can use some good words.
Posted @ Thursday, August 22, 2013 9:39 AM by marylee
I had posted above that my dog (Shih Tzu) had bladder stones requiring surgery. The following Sunday she could not urinate, her vet was closed and I Googled in "My dog has not urinated in 24 hours." There were many recommendations but most of them recommended giving the dog Pedialyte. I went out and bought it and force fed it to her using a dog feeding syringe. She appeared to like it and I removed the syringe and she drank the rest out of a bowl. She then urinated as if she was not going to stop and passed stones. I continued giving her the Pedialyte and she passed a total of 12 stones. The following day I took her to a new vet for a second opinion. She was x-rayed and they only saw two stones. They changed her diet to Royal Canin Urinary Diet and her urine is now clear with no crystals and no blood. She is a very finicky eater but she loves her new food which she will probably need to be on for the rest of her life which is fine with me because the loves the food. I check her urine periodically using canine pH strips and it is normal. Her next follow up will be in September. I have transferred her care to the new vet.
Posted @ Thursday, August 22, 2013 12:30 PM by Dorothy Sinkler
Nice! Your blog is full of interesting information about the Dogs. I think your post is very useful for them who have the pets like Dogs. Thanks for sharing!!! 
Posted @ Saturday, August 31, 2013 4:14 AM by Pet Sitting Philadelphia
Our little 1 yr 10 month Yorkie was peeing every few steps outside . Then she has 2 accidents in house. She was humiliated. I took urine sample to our vet. Her numbers were off the charts. Meaning she had a UTI. that was Sunday. They gave her antibiotics but the vet wanted to see her first thing Monday. Thank God. He felt her belly and ordered xray . They found a huge stone plus 15-20 smaller ones . While she was in the crate waiting for us to read X-rays she peed . They saw at least 20 little ones on floor of crate This confirmed what the vet told us. She was taken to surgery immediately. A new diet and distilled water only. She is a very lucky puppy. The vet said the large stone would never be able to pass. It would not be a good thing at all if it did travel . The small stones could become dangerous for her as well.  
Our concern now is what makes them from coming back again? Besides changing her diet and treats along with the water? How do we know she is not making more stones while she recuperates ?  
She is doing fantastic! In pain but the meds are helping
Posted @ Tuesday, September 24, 2013 7:09 AM by Pat
Thanks for this valuable information, it really help me a lot. Border Collie Puppies For Sale UK 
Posted @ Thursday, October 10, 2013 5:48 AM by Puppies Forsale
Our Maggie is scheduled for this surgery on Monday. Curious just how expensive is this surgery. No matter what it will be done. She's a Pugle and we love her.
Posted @ Thursday, November 07, 2013 9:49 AM by Janice Cashner
I had posted above that my Shih Tzu had bladder stones. One Sunday when my vet was closed I gave her Pedialyte and she passed a lot of stones. She now has a new vet, she is on Royal Canin Urinary Dog Food, she is allowed NO treats. She loves the wet food and I emptied out her treat jar and put the dry dog food (still Royal Canin) in it and she eats them and thinks she is eating treats. So far she has had no further stones, and in fact just had her teeth cleaned under anesthesia and is doing very well. Her vet told me that any remaining stones should dissolve using her Royal Canin Urinary Dog food. So far so good.
Posted @ Thursday, November 07, 2013 10:32 AM by Dorothy Sinkler
Where do you get that special royal canine dogfood? My maltese is scheduled for surgery on Monday. Constant trying to urinate and accidents on rugs. wearing diapers now. Who told you about pediolyte?
Posted @ Saturday, November 30, 2013 8:33 AM by Elizabeth
I buy the Royal Canin Urinary Dog Food at Petsmart. If you dog needs to be on this food your vet will give you a prescription, they will not sell it to you without one. My dog has been on this food now for several months and she has had no further stones. I check her urinary pH on a daily basis and it has been normal so far. I think you can buy the urinary strips at Pet Smart but I ordered mine from Amazon (at Solid Gold). They are very inexpensive and you get a lot in a package, with instruction on how to use them, very easy. My Shih Tzu goes for her follow up six month check up in January 2014 and I will post an update on her condition. So far she is doing just fine and has not passed any more stones. You must be very strict with the dog food and follow the instructions from your vet 100%, no substitutions and no treats. As I posted above, I give her the wet food during the day and I give her the Royal Canin Urinary dry dog food for treats, at least she thinks they are treats and loves them and actually "asks" for them by going to her treat jar and barking her little head off.
Posted @ Saturday, November 30, 2013 9:27 AM by Dorothy Sinkler
My 5 yr old Yorkie couldn't pee Friday morning. I immediately took her to her vet and they performed Cystotomy surgery. My yorkie had 18 bladder stones and 1 large stone that my vet couldn't get flushed backed into her bladder using a catheter, so they transported her to the BIG ANIMAL HOSPITAL and the performed the same procedure and were successful. (I was told if they were unable to get that stone out of her urethral using the catheter to get the stone back into her bladder, they would have to go into her pelvis). She's still at the vet hospital recovering and we can possibly take her home tomorrow. Very costly surgery, but I have pet insurance on all 3 of my yorkies.
Posted @ Saturday, November 30, 2013 10:25 AM by Roz
HI Roz, 
 
I hope your baby is better by now. I have always had dogs but this is the first one who has had bladder stones. You are very smart to have pet insurance, I have it too and it really comes in handy for those unexpected times when a life saving operation is necessary. Keep me posted about her progress.
Posted @ Saturday, November 30, 2013 1:09 PM by Dottie Sinkler
Greetings... Hi Dottie and everyone!!!! Thanks for your concern for my baby girl. Just got off the phone with the hospital and they said my Kandi girl is doing wonderfully. She's eating and peeing with no problems. I have a question for Dottie. Where did you learn about Pedialyte? That was very interesting....
Posted @ Saturday, November 30, 2013 3:19 PM by Roz
MY 8 YEAR OLD COCKER,MALTISE MIX HAS HAD THE CYSOTOMY SURGERY. SHE HAD LARGE STONES THE SIZE OF SMALL MARBLES. THIS IS THE SECOND TIME SHE HAS THESE. I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW WHAT CAUSES THESE. SHE HAS BEEN ON THE ROYAL CANINE SO FOOD FOR PROBLEY 3 YEARS THEY CHANGED HER DOG TO THE DIETARY SO FOOD ABOUT 3 MONTHS AGO AND NOW THIS IS WHAT IS HAPPENING I DIDNT MENTION THAT THEY DID EMERGENCY SURGERY ON HER. BECAUSE SHE WAS BLOCKED AND IT WAS FILLING UP INSIDE. RIGHT NOW SHE IS DOING GOOD BUT THEN SHE HAD THE SUGERY ON THE 26 OF DEC.
Posted @ Monday, December 30, 2013 4:14 PM by MARY KUMANCHIK
Our bichon frise, Sam, just had surgery for nine bladder stones. Scary for him and for us also but it is remarkable the difference in him now compared to a week ago. He is the very 
best little guy as far as we are concerned-but then- we are biased!
Posted @ Saturday, February 22, 2014 2:29 PM by debbie
Debbie.... how old is your Bichon? My 13 yr old Bichon has a big bladder stone and I'm very nervous about the surgery.
Posted @ Thursday, February 27, 2014 11:03 AM by Joan
My 14 year old bichon just had bladder stone surgery. She was considered a high risk due to her age and heart murmur but we had no choice since she was in so much pain.She made it through fine and is a happy girl once again but she is making many accidents. Any advice?
Posted @ Wednesday, March 05, 2014 4:50 PM by Maryann
Maggie thinks she will have the surgery as she has had stones for two years. She is 13 so i'm nervous about it, but reading all the coments it has made me feel secure in having the surgery for her.
Posted @ Friday, March 07, 2014 12:41 PM by Barbara
Our 5 year old Yorkie just had stone surgery 10 days ago. The surgery went great and she had a few stones, sand and grit removed. Still haven't heard the results of what type of stones, but after the surgery she did very well. About 5 days after surgery she started pottying several spots outside and accidents again inside. ;*( By Wednesday she has has been incontinent will sleeping. 
She was on an antiInflammatory / Pain meds for about 7 days and on antibiotics for 10. We go back for a urine culture tomorrow. I just don't know why we seem to be back to square one. She had been on Hills c/d since October and about 3 weeks ago switched her to Royal Canin SO. Absolutely no treats. I like the idea of trying the dry food as a treat. Great idea. I just hope we can get our little girl taken care of. I feel so sorry for her. If anyone has any ideas please share. Thanks a bunch.
Posted @ Friday, March 21, 2014 4:41 PM by Dawn
Hi Dawn,  
I hope your Yorkie is doing better. I, too, have 3 Yorkies and 2 of them went through the surgery. My male had no issues or problems with incontinence, but my 5 yr old female did and still does. She's on meds for it though. We mix the c/d and the s/o food (every few days) for our Yorkies so they're not on the same food all the time and they don't get bored with the same thing. And sometimes it's actually mixed together in the same bowl. They favor the c/d over the s/o though. Hope this helps. Good luck and God bless.
Posted @ Sunday, March 23, 2014 5:36 PM by Roz
My 10 year old Jack Russell Terrier will have surgery tomorrow and I'm supper nervous about the whole thing. I just am wondering about the recovery and how many days to expect him (Tank) to be out of it? How long for him to be able to go to the bathroom after surgery. Will he be back to his old self or will this change him? Thank you to all that have posted here it is really helping me.
Posted @ Sunday, March 30, 2014 3:17 PM by Chandra
my four year old British bull dog had an Urethrostomy, due to stones. After the op, he was experiencing excessive pain and still unable to pass urine, 6 days later he had a Cystotomy and stones were removed he was allowed to come home two days after surgery. On our journey home he stated getting stressed and crying and pawing at the car door i stopped to let him pee, on trying to wee, he screamed like i'd never heard before and collapsed on the floor, i thought his bladder had burst and rushed him back to the vets. They told me it was just pain and sent him back home, next day i returned to the vets, due to extensive straining and pain not passing urine, i was sent home, the next day he still couldn't wee i returned to the vets they put a catheter into his bladder and only removed a small amount of urine and said he must be passing urine, due to the small amount. That night he was sick and the next morning, he was sick and i noticed he was very swollen and extended around his abdomen. I rushed him back to the vets when they scanned him and found one half liters of urine floating around his internal organs due to a hole in his bladder. My dog as now been at the vets for three days. the first operation was £800, the second i got quoted £400, then given a bill for £800. (in between these visits i attended a out of hours vet and paid £300, plus another £100, for over night care after his third operation, when my vet transported him to veterinary hospital) plus each time i have returned to the vets i have been charged consultation fee's I have just phone the vets to see when i can have my dog home and i was told the bill so far for the last operation and care was now standing at £2000. I'm cross because i told them the day he came home two days after surgery something was seriously wrong with my dog and he could not pass urine, i told them i thought his sitches had come undone due to the way he screamed in pain. every day i returned saying he ws really ill it was more than pain. The vet is now saying the bladder only ruptured a couple of hours before i took him in back, yet they emptied it the day before and my dog refused to drink anything that day and the only small amount he drunk the next day he sicked straight back up. I am cross because i believe my dog as gone through excessive pain and an extra operation because the first one was not stitched correctly, (i was told one line of stitches on the bladder)and i have been charger an extra £2000, for them to put right an operation they messed up in the first place.
Posted @ Wednesday, April 02, 2014 11:46 AM by natalie
my four year old British bull dog had an Urethrostomy, due to stones. After the op, he was experiencing excessive pain and still unable to pass urine, 6 days later he had a Cystotomy and stones were removed he was allowed to come home two days after surgery. On our journey home he stated getting stressed and crying and pawing at the car door i stopped to let him pee, on trying to wee, he screamed like i'd never heard before and collapsed on the floor, i thought his bladder had burst and rushed him back to the vets. They told me it was just pain and sent him back home, next day i returned to the vets, due to extensive straining and pain not passing urine, i was sent home, the next day he still couldn't wee i returned to the vets they put a catheter into his bladder and only removed a small amount of urine and said he must be passing urine, due to the small amount. That night he was sick and the next morning, he was sick and i noticed he was very swollen and extended around his abdomen. I rushed him back to the vets when they scanned him and found one half liters of urine floating around his internal organs due to a hole in his bladder. My dog as now been at the vets for three days. the first operation was £800, the second i got quoted £400, then given a bill for £800. (in between these visits i attended a out of hours vet and paid £300, plus another £100, for over night care after his third operation, when my vet transported him to veterinary hospital) plus each time i have returned to the vets i have been charged consultation fee's I have just phone the vets to see when i can have my dog home and i was told the bill so far for the last operation and care was now standing at £2000. I'm cross because i told them the day he came home two days after surgery something was seriously wrong with my dog and he could not pass urine, i told them i thought his sitches had come undone due to the way he screamed in pain. every day i returned saying he ws really ill it was more than pain. The vet is now saying the bladder only ruptured a couple of hours before i took him in back, yet they emptied it the day before and my dog refused to drink anything that day and the only small amount he drunk the next day he sicked straight back up. I am cross because i believe my dog as gone through excessive pain and an extra operation because the first one was not stitched correctly, (i was told one line of stitches on the bladder)and i have been charger an extra £2000, for them to put right an operation they messed up in the first place. Natalie
Posted @ Wednesday, April 02, 2014 11:52 AM by Natalie
Natalie, 
I'm so very sorry about what you and your sweet doggy have been going through!!! I wish you had a better vet that would be more personal with you and your dog! I hope things get better for you both!! Prayers!
Posted @ Wednesday, April 02, 2014 12:43 PM by Sheri
Natalie, 
Where are you located???
Posted @ Wednesday, April 02, 2014 12:47 PM by SHeri
my dusty has had 2 acl repairs, and in september a cystostomy for multiple bladder stone. we love our pets like family, so i don't think there's an option. sorry natalie for your heartache...as for bills...about 17,000 just in surgeries...and we are on fixed incomes..good luck and God bless all of you.
Posted @ Wednesday, April 02, 2014 6:54 PM by marylee
Roz, thank you for the ideas. Lexi is doing much better!! The incontinence might have been from the surgery, but she has had no problems in the past couple of weeks. The last report was very good. No infection, no crystals!! Keeping my fingers crossed!!
Posted @ Thursday, April 03, 2014 7:15 PM by Dawn Schlechte
My 12YR. old Shih Tzu Molly just had the Cystotomy surgery and is doing fine. The Vet discovered some strange polyps which were sent in for testing cancer, and the results came back that Molly had cancer in the lining of her bladder. HAs any one experienced this with their dog? I guess she has had them for awhile but never saw any signs? Thanks, Shirley
Posted @ Friday, April 04, 2014 3:48 PM by Shirley Barthelemy
Shirley, 
Oh my, I haven't heard of that...polyps in the lining of the bladder that are cancerous? I'm glad all is well with Molly. Thanks for sharing...
Posted @ Sunday, April 06, 2014 12:43 PM by Roz
How is Molly? My 14-1/2 year old cairn terrier has some tpye of growth in her bladder and the only way to know is it is can is surgery. She feels so good now and showing 0 signs of problems which I know could change. It is operable at this time and my heart tells me to go for it but my head tells me to leave her alone as her quality of life is good and I have no idea what the surgery would do to her. There also seems to be a high risk of it growing back. It is not the money, believe me. I have never spared a dime in taking care of her over the years. He well being is all that matters. We did extensive xrays and at this time it is localized which could also change. This is by far the hardest decision I have ever made. If she did not make it through the surgery I would never forgive myself but if I do nothing and she dies from cancer I would never forgive myself. It is like being between a rock and a hard place! Any just wanted to see how Molly is and how she recovered from surgery. Thanks.
Posted @ Tuesday, May 13, 2014 7:39 PM by claudette
my dog, dusty, just had to have emergency surgery for more bladder stones including a large one blocking the urethra. poor guy has had now 2 acl repairs and now t cyctotomies..i will never put him through all this again..we are on fixed incomes ..as you can see by my writing..i have had brain surgery..thye also created an opening lower on the penis, to prevent a stone from blocking the urethra again..i hope we made the right decisions..his stones are not caused by diet, but my chronic in fections..we do not have insurance..good luck to everyone 
Posted @ Wednesday, May 14, 2014 7:50 AM by marylee
Hi 
My norfolk terrier is now in having his second cystotomy operation he had his first four years ago but unfortunately makes stones which cannot be broken down with diet food although he his eating royal canine SO diet food which helps him to drink more water so they told me it will help. 
His first operation he got over well but he is still in the vets at present and i am hoping to fetch him home in the next couple of days although I miss him at least he is in the best place. 
I have just purchased an animal water fountain bowl they say it could help him to drink more water I have set this up in my kitchen and my other dog a cairn terrier is drinking out of it all the time  
 
HAVE ANYONE GOT ADVISE ON USING DISTILLED WATER DOES THIS HELP. I WILL TRY ANYTHING I WOULD NOT LIKE HIM TO GO THROUGH THIS AGAIN BECAUSE HE HIS NOW NINE YEARS OLD
Posted @ Wednesday, June 04, 2014 12:54 AM by Jane
hi there, i have an eight year old yorkie, with a heart murmer and heart diease, also had bloat last year 
right now, he is at the specialist hospital for kidney stones that they cant get rid of and say there isnt any cure, just metacam pains, and hoping they dissolve, he was sent home a few days ago, and was only home for four hours, when he started howling with pain, i took him back, and they thought there wasnt any thing wrong, just behaviour? kept him in as i insisted, and had a call the next day, to say, that they have found bladder stones, so my darling little boy is having bladder surgery tomorrow, wondering if the surgeon will be able to take a look as well at the kidneys as well? he has been in such pain, and im so worried, with all the other health problems going on. 
we are in the uk, and he is in a specialist hospital, has any one else been through this with a little dog with so many problems? m 
many thanks for reading this xx 
Posted @ Thursday, June 05, 2014 7:57 AM by laura
My Bichon Frise has had Bladder stone surgery a week ago. $ large stones and several smaller stones removed. She is recovering well taking antibiotics and anti-inflammatory meds, but is now leaking and wetting her bed. HELP!!! I do not have hard flooring throughout the house, and she makes no attempt to get up from the bed and go into the garden for a wee.  
Will this get better??
Posted @ Thursday, June 12, 2014 5:22 PM by Mandy
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